globe and degree

Earth Smarts

Earth smarts emerged from an an extensive, transdisciplinary analysis, and the reference list is lengthy. Many of the key documents appear in the following list, generated by Zotero. If you are one of these fine folk, please get involved - take the web survey or contact the lead researcher Bryan Nichols to chat. Enjoy!

AAAS. (2009). Benchmarks for science literacy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Aighewi, I. T., & Osaigbovo, U. A. (2009). Students’ Perspectives on Worldwide “Greening” of Tertiary Education Curricula. Research in Science Education, 1–13.

Aikenhead, G. (1994). What is STS in science teaching. In J. Solomon & G. Aikenhead (Eds.), STS education: International perspectives on reform. New York: Teachers College Press.

Ardoin, N. M. (2006). Toward an interdisciplinary understanding of place: Lessons for environmental education. Canadian Journal of Environmental Education (CJEE), 11(1), 112-126.

Azeiteiro, U. M., Goncalves, F., Pereira, R., Pereira, M. J., & Filho, W. L. (Eds.). (2007). Science and environmental education: Towards the integration of science education, experimental science activities and environmental education (1st ed.). New York: Peter Lang Publishing.

Bacharach, S. B. (1989). Organizational theories: Some criteria for evaluation. Academy of management review, 14(4), 496–515.

Balée, W. (2006). The research program of historical ecology. Annual review of Anthropology, 35(1), 75.

Balgopal, M. M., & Wallace, A. M. (2009). Decisions and dilemmas: Using writing to learn activities to increase ecological literacy. Journal of Environmental Education, 40(3), 13-26.

Barry, C. (2009). The environment/society disconnect: An overview of a concept tetrad of environment. The Journal of Environmental Education, 41(2), 116–132.

Berg, B. L. (2007). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Berkowitz, A. R. (2000). Towards a definition of ecological literacy. Institute of Ecosystem Studies. Retrieved June 29, 2007, from

Berkowitz, A. R., Ford, M. E., & Brewer, C. A. (2005). A framework for integrating ecological literacy, civics literacy and environmental citizenship in environmental education. Environmental Education and Advocacy: Changing Perspectives of Ecology and Education, 227-266.

Blumstein, D. T., & Saylan, C. (2007). The failure of environmental education (and how we can fix it). PLoS Biology, 5(5), e120. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050120

Bowers, C. A. (2001). Educating for eco-justice and community. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.

Bowers, C. A. (2006). Transforming environmental education: Making the cultural and environmental commons the focus of educational reform. Eugene, Or: Ecojustice Press. Retrieved from http://cabowers. net

Brenes-Castro, A. (2004). An integral model of peace education. In A. L. Wenden (Ed.), Educating for a culture of social and ecological peace (pp. 77-98). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Brown, J. S., Green, K., Hansen, S., & Fredricksen, L. (2004). Environmental indicators. Fraser Institute.

Bruning, R. H., Schraw, G. J., & Ronning, R. R. (1999). Cognitive psychology and instruction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Burd-Sharps, S., Lewis, K., & Martins, E. B. (2008). The measure of America: American human development report, 2008-2009. Irvington, NY: Columbia University Press.

Bybee, R. W. (2008). Scientific literacy, environmental issues, and PISA 2006: The 2008 Paul F-Brandwein lecture. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 17(6), 566-585.

Bybee, R. W., Fensham, P., & Laurie, R. (2009). Scientific literacy and contexts in PISA 2006 science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46(8), 862-864. doi:10.1002/tea.20332

Cachelin, A., Paisley, K., & Blanchard, A. (2009). Using the significant life experience framework to inform program evaluation: The Nature Conservancy’s Wings & Water Wetlands Education Program. Journal of Environmental Education, 40(2), 2-14.

Campaign for Environmental Literacy. (2007). Components of environmental literacy.

CASSE. (2010). Enough is enough: Ideas for a sustainable economy in a world of finite resources. London: Center for the Advancement of the Steady State Economy.

Center for Ecojustice Education. (n.d.). Ecojustice education. Retrieved from

Center for Ecoliteracy. (2008). Education for sustainability competencies. Retrieved November 17, 2008, from

Charles, C. (2009). The ecology of hope: Natural guides to building a children and nature movement. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 1–9. doi:10.1007/s10956-009-9193-z

Chawla, L. (2006). Research methods to investigate significant life experiences: Review and recommendations. Environmental Education Research, 12(3), 359-374.

Christenson, M. A. (2004). Teaching multiple perspectives on environmental issues in elementary classrooms: a story of teacher inquiry. The journal of environmental education, 35(4), 3-16.

Christenson, M. A. (2008). Children’s literature on recycling: What does it contribute to environmental literacy? Applied Environmental Education & Communication, 7(4), 144-154. doi:10.1080/15330150902744160

Code, L. (2006). Ecological thinking: The politics of epistemic location. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

College Board. (2010). AP Environmental Science themes and topics. Retrieved from

Colucci-Gray, L., Camino, E., Barbiero, G., & Gray, D. (2006). From scientific literacy to sustainability literacy: An ecological framework for education. Science Education, 90(2), 227–252.

Corcoran, P. B. (2004). What if? The educational possibilities of the Earth Charter. Educational Studies, 36(1), 108-117.

Corcoran, P. B. (Ed.). (2007). The Earth Charter in action: Toward a sustainable world. Amsterdam: KIT.

Corcoran, P. B., & Wals, A. E. J. (2004). Higher education and the challenge of sustainability. Dordrecht: Springer. Retrieved from

Costa, A. L., & Kallick, B. (2009). Describing 16 habits of mind. The Institute for Habits of Mind. Retrieved from

Coyle, K. (2005). Environmental literacy in America: What ten years of NEETF/Roper research and related studies say about environmental literacy in the US. Washington, DC: NEETF.

Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. L. P. (2006). Designing and conducting mixed methods research (1st ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Crumley, C. L. (2007). Historical ecology: Integrated thinking at multiple temporal and spatial scales. In A. Hornborg & C. L. Crumley (Eds.), The world system and the earth system: global socioenvironmental change and sustainability since the Neolithic. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek (p. 15–28). Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.

Cutter-Mackenzie, A., & Smith, R. (2003). Ecological Literacy: the “missing paradigm”in environmental education (part one). Environmental Education Research, 9(4), 497-524.

Daily, G. C., Polasky, S., Goldstein, J., Kareiva, P. M., Mooney, H. A., Pejchar, L., Ricketts, T. H., et al. (2009). Ecosystem services in decision making: time to deliver. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 7(1), 21-28.

Daloz, L. A. (2004). Transformative learning for bioregional citizenship. In M. M. Taylor & E. O’Sullivan (Eds.), Learning Toward an Ecological Consciousness: Selected Transformative Practices (pp. 29-45). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Daudi, S. S. (2008). Environmental literacy: A system of best-fit for promoting environmental awareness in low literate communities. Applied Environmental Education and Communication: an International Journal, 7(3), 76-82.

Davis, A., & Ruddle, K. (2010). Constructing confidence: Rational skepticism and systematic enquiry in local ecological knowledge research. Ecological Applications, 20(3), 880-894.

Devall, B., & Sessions, G. (1985). Deep ecology: Living as if nature mattered. Layton, UT: Gibbs Smith Publishers.

Diamond, J. M. (2005). Collapse: How societies choose to fail or succeed. New York: Viking Press.

Diener, E., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Beyond Money: Toward an economy of well-being. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 5(1), 1-31. doi:10.1111/j.0963-7214.2004.00501001.x

Disinger, J. F., & Roth, C. E. (1992). Environmental literacy. ERIC Digest EDO-SE.

Dobson, A. (2004). Citizenship and the environment. New York: Oxford University Press, USA.

Dobson, A., & Bell, D. (2005). Environmental citizenship (illustrated edition.). Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Earth Charter Initiative. (2000). The earth charter. Retrieved from

Earth Science Literacy Initiative. (2009). Earth science literacy principles: The big ideas and supporting concepts of earth science. Earth Science Literacy Initiative. Retrieved from

Economist Intelligence Unit. (2005). The Economist Intelligence Unit’s quality-of-life index. The Economist. Retrieved from (2009). Global competence matrix. EdSteps. Retrieved from

Edwards, G. (2006). Beyond the separate subjects: Towards a post-disciplinary approach to environmental eucation. In J. C.-K. Lee & M. Williams (Eds.), Environmental and Geographical Education for Sustainability: Cultural Contexts (pp. 109-121). New York: Nova Science.

Ehrlich, P. R. (2009). Cultural evolution and the human predicament. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 24(8), 409–412.

Eisner, E. W. (1998). The enlightened eye: Qualitative inquiry and the enhancement of educational practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

Furman, G. C., & Gruenewald, D. A. (2004). Expanding the landscape of social justice: A critical ecological analysis. Educational Administration Quarterly, 40(1), 47.

Gert, B. (2004). Common morality: Deciding what to do. New York: Oxford University Press.

Godemann, J. (2008). Knowledge integration: A key challenge for transdisciplinary cooperation. Environmental Education Research, 14(6), 625-641.

Goleman, D. (2009). Ecological intelligence: How knowing the hidden impacts of what we buy can change everything. New York: Broadway Books.

Golley, F. B. (1998). A Primer for environmental literacy. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Grant, D. M. (2009). Toward sustainable literacies: From representational to recreational rhetorics. In P. N. Goggin (Ed.), Rhetorics, literacies, and narratives of sustainability (pp. 202-216). New York: Routledge.

Gray, D., Colucci-Gray, L., & Camino, E. (Eds.). (2009). Science, society, and sustainability: Education and empowerment for an uncertain world. New York: Routledge.

Gruenewald, D. A. (2003). The best of both worlds: A critical pedagogy of place. Educational Researcher, 32(4), 3-12. doi:10.3102/0013189X032004003

Hardin, G. (1980). Ecology and the death of providence. Zygon, 15(1), 57.

Hautecoeur, J.-P. (Ed.). (2002). Ecological education in everyday life. ALPHA 2000. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Heyward, C. (2008). Can the all-affected principle include future persons? Green deliberative democracy and the non-identity problem. Environmental Politics, 17(4), 625–643.

Hilton, M. (2010). Exploring the intersection of science education and 21st century skills. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Hodson, D. (2003). Time for action: Science education for an alternative future. International Journal of Science Education, 25(6), 645–670.

Holmgren, D. (2002). Permaculture: Principles and pathways beyond sustainability. Hepburn, AU: Holmgren Design Services.

Hopkins, R. (2008). The transition handbook. White River Jct, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing.

Hsu, S. J., & Roth, R. E. (1998). An assessment of environmental literacy and Aaalysis of predictors of responsible environmental behaviour held by secondary teachers in the Hualien area of Taiwan. Environmental Education Research, 4(3), 229-249.

Huang, R. (2009). RQDA: R-based qualitative data analysis. Retrieved from

Hungerford, H. R., Bluhm, W. J., Volk, T. L., & Ramsey, J. M. (1998). Essential readings in environmental education.

Hungerford, H. R., & Volk, T. L. (1990). Changing learner behavior through environmental education. Journal of Environmental Education, 21(3), 8-22.

Hungerford, Harold R. (1996). The development of responsible environmental citizenship: A critical challenge. Journal of Interpretation Research, 1(1), 25-37.

Jickling, B., & Wals, A. E. J. (2008). Globalization and environmental education: looking beyond sustainable development. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 40(1), 1-21.

Johnson, M. P. (2001). Environmental impacts of urban sprawl: a survey of the literature and proposed research agenda. Environment and Planning A, 33(4), 717 – 735. doi:10.1068/a3327

Jordan, R., Singer, F., Vaughan, J., & Berkowitz, A. (2009). What should every citizen know about ecology? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 7(9), 495-500. doi:10.1890/070113

Kahn, R. (2003). Towards ecopedagogy: Weaving a broad-based pedagogy of liberation for animals, nature, and the oppressed people of the earth. Animal Liberation Philosophy and Policy Journal, 1(1).

Kant, I. (1785). The groundwork of the metaphysics of morals.

Kates, R. W., Clark, W. C., Corell, R., Hall, J. M., Jaeger, C. C., Lowe, I., McCarthy, J. J., et al. (2001). Environment and development: Sustainability science. Science, 292(5517), 641-642. doi:10.1126/science.1059386

van de Kerk, G., & Manuel, A. (2008). Sustainable society index 2008. Sustainable Society Foundation. Retrieved from

Kirby, A. (2004). Planet under pressure. BBC News. Retrieved May 6, 2007, from

Klemow, K. M. (1991). Basic ecological literacy: A first cut. Ecological Society of America Education Section Newsletter, 2(1), 4-5.

Koballa, T. R., & Glynn, S. M. (2007). Attitudinal and motivational constructs in science learning. In S. K. Abell & N. G. Lederman (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Science Education (pp. 75-102). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Krathwohl, D. R. (1993). Methods of educational and social science research. New York: Longman.

Lawn, P. A. (2003). A theoretical foundation to support the Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW), Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), and other related indexes. Ecological Economics, 44(1), 105-118.

Lencastre, M. P. A., & Leal, R. M. (2007). Educational narrativity and environmental literacies. In U. M. Azeiteiro, F. Goncalves, R. Pereira, M. J. Pereira, & W. L. Filho (Eds.), Science and Environmental Education: Towards the Integration of Science Education, Experimental Science Activities and Environmental Education, Environmental Education, Communication and Sustainability (1st ed., pp. 125-151). Frankfurt: Peter Lang Publishing.

Lieberman, G. A., & Hoody, L. L. (1998). Closing the achievement gap: Using the environment as an integrating context for learning. State Education and Environment Roundtable.

Lijmbach, S., Arcken, M. M.-V., Van Koppen, C. S. A., & Wals, A. E. J. (2002). Your view of nature is not mine! Learning about pluralism in the classroom. Environmental Education Research, 8(2), 121-135.

Lo, C. P., Affolter, J. M., & Reeves, T. C. (2002). Building environmental literacy through participation in GIS and multimedia assisted field research. Journal of Geography, 101(1), 10-19.

Louv, R. (2008). Last child in the woods: Saving our children from nature-deficit disorder (2nd ed.). Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books.

LSF. (n.d.). ESD learning outcomes. Learning for a Sustainable Future. Retrieved from

Lumina. (2011). Degree qualifications profile. Indianapolis, IN: Lumina Foundation for Education.

Marcinkowski, T. J., & Rehring, L. (1995). The secondary school report: A final report on the development, pilot testing, validation, and field testing of--the secondary school environmental literacy assessment instrument (pp. 30-76). Cincinnati, OH: Office of Research & Development, US EPA.

Martusewicz, R. A., & Edmundson, J. (2005). Social foundations as pedagogies of responsibility and eco-ethical commitment. In D. W. Butin (Ed.), Teaching Social Foundations of Education: Contexts, Theories, and Issues (pp. 71-92). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Marzano, R. J., & Kendall, J. S. (2007). The new taxonomy of educational objectives (Second Edition.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Marzano, R. J., & Kendall, J. S. (2008). Designing and assessing educational objectives: Applying the new taxonomy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

McKibben, B. (2010). Eaarth: Making a life on a tough new planet. New York: Times Books.

Melo-Escrihela, C. (2008). Promoting ecological citizenship: Rights, duties and political agency. ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies, 7(2), 113-134.

Mepham, B. (2000). A framework for the ethical analysis of novel foods: the ethical matrix. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 12(2), 165-176.

Mill, J. S. (1906). Utilitarianism. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Monroe, M. C., Andrews, E., & Biedenweg, K. (2007). A framework for environmental education strategies. Applied Environmental Education & Communication, 6(3), 205-216.

Moran, E. F. (2007). The human-environment nexus: Progress in the past decade in the integrated analysis of human and biophysical factors. In A. Hornborg & C. L. Crumley (Eds.), The world system and the earth system: global socioenvironmental change and sustainability since the Neolithic. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek (pp. 231-242). Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.

Mueller, M. P. (2008). EcoJustice as ecological literacy is much more than being “green!” Educational Studies, 44(2), 155-166.

Mueller, M. P. (2009). Educational reflections on the “ecological crisis”: ecojustice, environmentalism, and sustainability. Science & Education, 18(8), 1031-1056. doi:10.1007/s11191-008-9179-x

Mueller, M. P., & Bentley, M. L. (2007). Beyond the“ decorated landscapes” of educational reform: Toward landscapes of pluralism in science education. Science Education, 91(2), 321.

Mueller, M. P., & Bentley, M. L. (2009). Environmental and science education in developing nations: A Ghanaian approach to renewing and revitalizing the local community and ecosystems. The Journal of Environmental Education, 40(4), 53-64.

Mueller, M. P., & Zeidler, D. L. (2009). Moral-ethical character and science education: EcoJustice ethics through socioscientific issues (SSI). In D. J. Tippins, Mueller, Michael P., M. V. W. Eijck, & J. Adams (Eds.), Cultural Studies and Environmentalism: The Confluence of EcoJustice, Place-Based (Science) Education and Indigenous Knowledge Systems. New York: Springer.

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NEF. (2009). National accounts of well-being: bringing real wealth onto the balance sheet. London: New Economics Foundation.

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Newell, B., Crumley, C. L., Hassan, N., Lambin, E. F., Pahl-Wostl, C., Underdal, A., & Wasson, R. (2005). A conceptual template for integrative human–environment research. Global Environmental Change, 15(4), 299-307.

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